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A malformation is a morphological defect caused by the abnormal development of an organ or tissue. Cutaneous malformations account for around 5% of all malformations. This group includes numerous different types of lesions, such as naevi, vascular abnormalities, aplasias, which are covered in other chapters, dysembryoplastic tumours and heterotopia. Cutaneous malformations in dysraphism can be categorised according to site or the pathophysiological mechanism (table I and table II). This chapter will cover neural tube closure defects of the brain and spinal cord, cysts and fistulae of the head and neck, and umbilical abnormalities.
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