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About a dozen environmental (ex-atypical) mycobacterial infections are expressed by cutaneous signs. In France infection with Mycobacterium marinum or “aquarist disease” is the model of contamination of the immunocompetent subject. Immunosuppression, in particular when associated with AIDS, favours the generalized forms of mycobacterial diseases, generally related to the complex Mycobacterium avium/intracellulare. In tropical area, infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans constitutes a priority emergent disease for WHO.
Keys-words: Environmental mycobacteria, atypical mycobacteria, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Buruli ulcer, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium avium/intracellulare.
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